Brimonidine Tartrate

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More about Brimonidine Tartrate

What is/are Brimonidine Tartrate?

Brimonidine (bri-MOE-ni-deen, brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P) is a drug used to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

It acts via decreasing synthesis of aqueous humor, and increasing the amount that drains from the eye through uveoscleral outflow. As a treatment for glaucoma, it is usually given in eyedrop form.

Medical uses

Brimonidine is indicated for the lowering of intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. It is also the active ingredient of Combigan along with timolol maleate.

Topical application of brimonidine 0.05% gel is being investigated in phase III trials for facial erythema or rosacea.

Adverse effects

  •     Eye pain or increased watering; or
  •     Severe swelling, redness, burning, or discomfort in or around your eye.

Common side effects may include:

  •     Drowsiness, tired feeling;
  •     Dry mouth, blurred vision;
  •     Mild itching, redness, or irritation of your eyes; or
  •     Mild stinging or burning when using the eye drops.

Mechanism of action

Brimonidine is an α2 adrenergic agonist. Alpha 2 agonists, through the activation of a G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the activity of adenylate cyclase. This reduces cAMP and hence aqueous humour production by the ciliary body.

Peripheral alpha 2 agonist activity results in vasoconstriction of blood vessels (as opposed to central alpha 2 agonist activity that decreases sympathetic tone, as can be seen by the medication clonidine). This vasoconstriction may explain the acute reduction in aqueous humor flow. The increased uveoscleral outflow from prolonged use may be explained by increased prostaglandin release due to alpha adrenergic stimulation. This may lead to relaxed ciliary muscle and increased uveoscleral outflow.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Brimonidine Tartrate, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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