What is/are Clindamycin?
Clindamycin rINN /klɪndəˈmaɪsɨn/ is a lincosamide antibiotic. It is usually used to treat infections with anaerobic bacteria, but can also be used to treat some protozoal diseases, such as malaria. It is a common topical treatment for acne and can be useful against some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections.
The most severe common adverse effect of clindamycin is Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (the most frequent cause of pseudomembranous colitis). Although this side effect occurs with almost all antibiotics, including beta-lactam antibiotics, it is classically linked to clindamycin use.
Clindamycin is marketed under various trade names, including Dalacin, Lincocin (Bangladesh), and Daclin. Combination products include Duac, BenzaClin, Clindoxyl and Acanya (in combination with benzoyl peroxide), and Ziana (with tretinoin). Clindamycin is also available as a generic drug.
Clindamycin is used primarily to treat anaerobic infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including dental infections, and infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue, and peritonitis. In patients with hypersensitivity to penicillins, clindamycin may be used to treat infections caused by susceptible aerobic bacteria, as well. It is also used to treat bone and joint infections, particularly those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Topical application of clindamycin phosphate can be used to treat mild to moderate acne.
Common adverse drug reactions associated with clindamycin therapy — found in over 1% of patients — include: diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or cramps, rash, and/or itch. High doses (both intravenous and oral) may cause a metallic taste, and topical application may cause contact dermatitis. Diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea are common if the individual lies down for an extended period of time within 30 minutes of taking clindamycin. In addition, severe heartburn can be expected for up to three days if the individual does not stay in an elevated position for at least 30 minutes.
Pseudomembranous colitis is a potentially lethal condition commonly associated with clindamycin, but which occurs with other antibiotics, as well. Overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, which is inherently resistant to clindamycin, results in the production of a toxin that causes a range of adverse effects, from diarrhea to colitis and toxic megacolon.
Rarely — in less than 0.1% of patients — clindamycin therapy has been associated with anaphylaxis, blood dyscrasias, polyarthritis, jaundice, raised liver enzyme levels, and/or hepatotoxicity.
Mechanism of action
Clindamycin has a bacteriostatic effect. It is a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor by inhibiting ribosomal translocation, in a similar way to macrolides. It does so by binding to the 50S rRNA of the large bacterial ribosome subunit.
The structures of the complexes between several antibiotics (including clindamycin) and a Deinococcus radiodurans ribosome have been solved by X-ray crystallography by a team from the Max Planck Working Groups for Structural Molecular Biology, and published in the journal Nature.
Clindamycin may prolong the effects of neuromuscular-blocking drugs, such as succinylcholine and vecuronium. Its similarity to the mechanism of action of macrolides and chloramphenicol means they should not be given simultaneously, as this causes antagonism and possible cross-resistance.
The veterinary uses of clindamycin are quite similar to its human indications, and include treatment of osteomyelitis, skin infections, and toxoplasmosis, for which it is the preferred drug in dogs and cats. Toxoplasmosis rarely causes symptoms in cats, but can do so in very young or immunocompromised kittens and cats.
What are clindamycin capsules?
CLINDAMYCIN (Cleocin®) is an antibiotic or antiinfective. It treats serious blood, bone, joint, lung, urinary tract, or pelvic infections. Generic clindamycin capsules are available.
What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
• inflammatory bowel disease
• kidney disease
• liver disease
• ulcerative colitis
• an unusual or allergic reaction to clindamycin, lincomycin, or other medicines, foods, dyes or preservatives
• pregnant or trying to get pregnant
How should I take this medicine?
Take clindamycin capsules by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Take at regular intervals, every 6 or 8 hours, during the day and night. It is best to take clindamycin 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating; take the capsules with a full glass of water. Do not lie down for 1—2 hours after taking clindamycin to avoid irritation to your throat. If clindamycin upsets your stomach you can take it with food. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Finish the full course of medicine prescribed by your prescriber or health care professional even if you feel better. Do not stop using except on your prescriber's advice.
What if I miss a dose?
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.
What drug(s) may interact with clindamycin capsules?
• kaolin products
• medicines for pain
• oral contraceptives (birth control pills)
Tell your prescriber or health care professional about all other medicines you are taking, including non-prescription medicines, nutritional supplements, or herbal products. Also tell your prescriber or health care professional if you are a frequent user of drinks with caffeine or alcohol, if you smoke, or if you use illegal drugs. These may affect the way your medicine works. Check with your health care professional before stopping or starting any of your medicines.
What side effects may I notice from taking clindamycin?
Side effects that you should report to your prescriber or health care professional as soon as possible:
• diarrhea that is watery or severe
• pain on swallowing
• stomach pain or cramps
• skin rash
• unusual bleeding or bruising
Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your prescriber or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):
• itching in the rectal or genital area
• nausea, vomiting
What should I watch for while taking clindamycin?
Tell your prescriber or health care professional if your symptoms do not improve in a few days.
Call your prescriber or health care professional if you get diarrhea. Do not treat yourself. Some diarrhea medicine will make the diarrhea worse.
If you have to have surgery, tell your prescriber or health care professional that you are taking clindamycin.
Where can I keep my medicine?
Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
Store at room temperature between 15—30 degrees C (59—86 degrees F) Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Clindamycin, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.