What is/are Ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen (INN) (/ˈaɪbjuːproʊfɛn/ or /aɪbjuːˈproʊfən/ EYE-bew-PROH-fən; from iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for pain relief, fever reduction, and against swelling.
Ibuprofen has an antiplatelet effect, though relatively mild and somewhat short-lived compared with aspirin or prescription antiplatelet drugs. In general, ibuprofen also has a vasodilation effect. Ibuprofen is a 'core' medicine in the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines necessary to meet the minimum medical needs of a basic healthcare system. Ibuprofen was derived from propanoic acid by the research arm of Boots Group during the 1960s and patented in 1961. Originally marketed as Brufen, ibuprofen is available under a variety of popular trademarks, including Motrin, Nurofen, Advil, and Nuprin. Generic formulations are available as well.
Generic Motrin (IBUPROFEN) is a pain reliever and fever reducer. Temporarily relieves minor aches and pains due to: headache, muscular aches, toothache, minor pain of arthritis, backache, the common cold, menstrual cramps. Temporarily reduces fever.
Ibuprofen is used primarily for fever, pain, dysmenorrhea and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus
Common adverse effects include: nausea, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal ulceration/bleeding, raised liver enzymes, diarrhea, constipation, epistaxis, headache, dizziness, rash, salt and fluid retention, and hypertension. A study from 2010 has shown regular use of NSAIDs was associated with an increase in hearing loss.
Infrequent adverse effects include: esophageal ulceration, heart failure, hyperkalemia, renal impairment, confusion, and bronchospasm. Ibuprofen can exacerbate asthma, sometimes fatally.
Ibuprofen appears to have the lowest incidence of digestive adverse drug reactions of all the nonselective NSAIDs. However, this holds true only at lower doses of ibuprofen, so over-the-counter (OTC) preparations of ibuprofen are, in general, labeled to advise a maximum daily dose of 1,200 mg.
Ibuprofen may be quantitated in blood, plasma, or serum to demonstrate the presence of the drug in a person having experienced an anaphylactic reaction, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, or assist in a medicolegal death investigation. A nomogram relating ibuprofen plasma concentration, time since ingestion, and risk of developing renal toxicity in overdose patients has been published.
Mechanism of action
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen work by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). PGH2, in turn, is converted by other enzymes to several other prostaglandins (which are mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever) and to thromboxane A2 (which stimulates platelet aggregation, leading to the formation of blood clots).
Like acetaminophen and indomethacin, ibuprofen is a nonselective COX inhibitor, in that it inhibits two isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activity of NSAIDs appears to operate mainly through inhibition of COX-2, whereas inhibition of COX-1 would be responsible for unwanted effects on the gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of the individual COX isoforms in the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and gastric damage effects of NSAIDs is uncertain and different compounds cause different degrees of analgesia and gastric damage.
To achieve the beneficial effects of ibuprofen and other NSAIDs without gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, selective COX-2 inhibitors were developed to inhibit the COX-2 isoform without inhibition of COX-1.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Ibuprofen, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.