What is/are Ipratropium bromide?
Ipratropium bromide (INN, trade names Atrovent, Apovent, Ipraxa, Aerovent and Rinatec) is an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute asthma. It blocks the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs, opening the bronchi.
Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For that purpose it is supplied in a canister for use in an inhaler or in single dose vials for use in a nebulizer.
It is also combined with salbutamol (albuterol, USA) under the trade names Combivent (metered-dose inhaler or MDI) and Duoneb (nebulizer) for the management of COPD and asthma, and with fenoterol (trade names Duovent and Berodual N) for the management of asthma. Ipratropium as a .03% nasal solution sprayed into the nostrils can reduce rhinorrhea but will not help nasal congestion
If ipratropium is inhaled, side effects resembling those of other anticholinergics are minimal. However, dry mouth and sedation have been reported. Also, effects such as skin flushing, tachycardia, acute angle-closure glaucoma, nausea, palpitations and headache have been observed. Inhaled ipratropium does not decrease mucociliary clearance. The inhalation itself can cause headache and irritation of the throat in a few percent of patients.
Urinary retention has been reported in patients receiving doses by nebulizer. As a result, caution may be warranted, especially by in men with prostatic hypertrophy.
Mechanism of action
Combination with beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as theophylline and other xanthine derivatives, increases the dilating effect on the bronchi. Interactions with other anticholinergics like tricyclic antidepressants, antiparkinson drugs and quinidine, which theoretically increase side effects, are clinically irrelevant when ipratropium is administered as an inhalant.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Ipratropium bromide, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.