What is/are Nalidixic Acid?
Nalidixic acid (tradenames Nevigramon, Neggram, Wintomylon and WIN 18,320) is the first of the synthetic quinolone antibiotics. In the technical sense, it is a naphthyridone, not a quinolone: its ring structure is a 1,8-naphthyridine nucleus that contains two nitrogen atoms, unlike quinoline, which has a single nitrogen atom.
Synthetic quinolone antibiotics were discovered by George Lesher and coworkers as a byproduct of chloroquine manufacture in the 1960s. Used clinically from 1967.
Nalidixic acid is effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In lower concentrations, it acts in a bacteriostatic manner; that is, it inhibits growth and reproduction. In higher concentrations, it is bactericidal, meaning that it kills bacteria instead of merely inhibiting their growth.
It has historically been used for treating urinary tract infections, caused, for example, by Escherichia coli, Proteus, Shigella, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella. It is no longer clinically used for this indication in the USA as less toxic and more effective agents are available.
It is also a tool in studies as a regulation of bacterial division. It selectively and reversibly blocks DNA replication in susceptible bacteria. Nalidixic acid and related antibiotics inhibit a subunit of DNA gyrase and induce formation of relaxation complex analogue. It also inhibits the nicking dosing activity on the subunit of DNA gyrase that releases the positive binding stress on the supercoiled DNA.
Adverse effects include convulsions and hyperglycaemia
- Diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; feeling of a whirling motion; headache; nausea; rash; stomach pain or discomfort; vomiting.
Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:
- Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); blurred or decreased vision; burning or tingling sensation; changes in color vision; convulsions; decrease in ability to sense pain, temperature, or body position; double vision; itching; numbness; pain; pain, redness, or swelling of a tendon; seeing halos around lights; weakness.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Nalidixic Acid, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.