Ranitidine

 
0.0 (0)
This page displays reviews written by users of all forms of Ranitidine. You can also choose to see reviews only for a specific medical condition or brand name.

More about Ranitidine

What is/are Ranitidine?

Ranitidine (/rəˈnɪtɨdiːn/; trade name Zantac) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is commonly used in treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Ranitidine is also used alongside fexofenadine and other antihistamines for the treatment of skin conditions such as hives. Ranitidine is also known to give false positives for methamphetamine on drug tests.

Medical uses

Certain preparations of ranitidine are available over the counter (OTC) in various countries. In the United States, 75-mg and 150-mg tablets are available OTC. Zantac OTC is manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim. In Australia, packs containing seven or 14 doses of the 150-mg tablet are available in supermarkets, small packs of 150-mg and 300-mg tablets are schedule 2 pharmacy medicines. Larger doses and pack sizes still require a prescription.

Outside the United States and Canada, ranitidine is combined with bismuth (which acts as a mild antibiotic) as a citrate salt (ranitidine bismuth citrate, Tritec), to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. This combination is usually given with clarithromycin, an antibiotic.

Ranitidine can also be coadministered with NSAIDs to reduce the risk of ulceration. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are more effective for the prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers.

Ranitidine can be administered preoperatively to reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia. The drug not only increases gastric pH, but also reduces the total output of gastric juice. Ranitidine may have an antiemetic effect when administered preoperatively. It can be administered intravenously in intensive care units to critically ill patients (particularly geriatric ones) to reduce the risk of gastric bleeding.

The usual dose of ranitidine is either 150 mg twice a day or 300 mg once every 24 hours, usually at night. For ulcer treatment, a 300-mg night-time dose is especially important - as the increase in gastric/duodenal pH promotes healing overnight when the stomach and duodenum are empty. Conversely, for treating reflux, smaller and more frequent doses are more effective. Ranitidine used to be administered long term for reflux treatment, sometimes indefinitely. However, PPIs have taken over this role.

In some patients with severe reflux, up to 600 mg of ranitidine can be administered daily, usually in four lots of 150 mg. Such a high dose was not unusual in the past, but nowadays a once-a-day PPI is used instead - both for convenience and because they are more effective in raising gastric pH. Patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have been given doses of 6000 mg per day without any harm.

Adverse effects

Ranitidine appears to decrease mucosal perfusion in patients with acute renal or cardiac failure, and increases their risk of death. All drugs in its class decrease gastric intrinsic factor secretion, which can significantly reduce absorption of protein-bound vitamin B12 in humans. Elderly patients taking H2 receptor antagonists are more likely to require B12 supplementation than those not taking such drugs. H2 blockers may also reduce the absorption of drugs (azole antifungals, calcium carbonate) that require an acidic stomach.[6] By suppressing acid-mediated breakdown of proteins, antacid preparations such as ranitidine may lead to an elevated risk of developing food or drug allergies, due to undigested proteins then passing into the gastrointestinal tract, where sensitisation occurs. Whether this risk occurs with only long-term use or with short-term use, as well, is unclear.

Ranitidine and other histamine H2 receptor antagonists may increase the risk of pneumonia in hospitalized patients. They may also increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in adults and children. Multiple studies suggest the use of H2 receptor antagonists such as raniditine may increase the risk of infectious diarrhoea, including traveller's diarrhoea and salmonellosis.

H2 antagonists may increase the risk of developing food allergies. Patients who take these agents develop higher levels of IgE against food, whether they had prior antibodies or not. Even months after discontinuation, an elevated level of IgE in 6% of patients was still found in this study.

Additionally, thrombocytopenia is a rare but known side effect. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia usually takes weeks or months to appear, but may appear within 12 hours of drug intake in a sensitized individual. Typically, the platelet count falls to 80% of normal, and thrombocytopenia may be associated with neutropenia and anemia.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Ranitidine, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Reviews for Ranitidine

See reviews for a different combination of brand names and medical conditions:
     
There are no user reviews for this listing.
Already have an account?
Ratings
Overall satisfaction
Efficacy
Lack of side effects
Relevant Brand Name and Medical Condition
Additional Information
Please tell us about your experience with this medicine