What is/are Tenofovir/emtricitabine?
Tenofovir/emtricitabine, trademark Truvada by Gilead Sciences, is a fixed-dose combination of two antiretroviral drugs used for the treatment of HIV. It consists of 300 milligrams of tenofovir and 200 milligrams of emtricitabine.
The drug has been examined for use as a pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection. A Cochrane review found that both tenofovir alone, as well as the tenofovir/emtricitabine combination, significantly decreased the risk of contracting HIV. The Food and Drug Administration approved it for prophylactic use on July 16, 2012. It is estimated that daily intake of Truvada achieves a 99% of risk reduction of contracting HIV in high risk individuals.
In certain studies, the drug has demonstrated rare side effects including: transient nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite and loose stools.
The HEAT study (randomized, double-blind, placebo-matched, multicentre) showed that once-daily emtricitabine/tenofovir plus lopinavir/ritonavir or boosted atazanavir or efavirenz were effective in the initial treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection (with screening plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of ≥1,000,000 copies/mL in ACTG 5202).
In other randomized trials, emtricitabine/tenofovir DF 200 mg/300 mg once daily was an effective backbone for boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Emtricitabine/tenofovir DF in combination with various boosted PIs was generally well tolerated by adults with HIV-1 infection.
Truvada was developed by Gilead Sciences and approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2004.
A combination pill containing Truvada and efavirenz (Sustiva) is also available and is marketed as Atripla.
- Rapid heart rate, increased sweating, tremors, sleep problems (insomnia), feeling anxious or irritable;
- Severe diarrhea, unexplained weight loss, menstrual changes, impotence, loss of interest in sex;
- Swelling in your neck or throat (enlarged thyroid), feeling short of breath;
- Weakness or prickly feeling in your fingers or toes, joint pain;
- Problems with balance or eye movement, trouble speaking or swallowing;
- Severe lower back pain, loss of bladder or bowel control;
- Signs of new infection such as fever, chills, skin lesions, or cough with yellow or green mucus; or
- Signs of liver damage - nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).
Less serious side effects of emtricitabine / tenofovir may include:
- Mild diarrhea. mild nausea or stomach pain;
- Headache, dizziness, depressed mood;
- Strange dreams;
- Mild itching or skin rash; or
- Changes in the shape or location of body fat (especially in your arms, legs, face, neck, breasts, and waist).
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Tenofovir/emtricitabine, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.